In their 2014 article Fiona J. Duff, Silvana E. Mengoni, Alison M. Bailey, Margaret J. Snowling republished in May 2015, writes that: To become literate in a language such as English, it is necessary to crack the alphabetic code – that is, to understand that certain phonemes (sounds) in speech are represented by graphemes (letters) in writing. Phonics instruction involves teaching this alphabetic principle and applying it to reading and spelling. There is good evidence to support the efficacy of teaching phonics as a means of teaching reading. However, it is important to acknowledge that phonics instruction is more effective when delivered in the context of a broader literacy curriculum, rather than in isolation.
Experts Bergmann and Cristia mention in their September 9, 2015 article in the journal of Developmental Science that infants start learning words, the building block of language, at least by six(6) months. To do so they must be able to extract the phonological form of words from running speech.
Do you speak to your baby in full complete sentences?
Do you act out instead of using words with your baby?
Do you prefer to use baby-talk with your baby because you think it’s cute?
Treat your baby like another member of the family. Do so, by giving them your full attention by commanding your speech.
Department of psychology at Berne University Switzerland shows that bullies are prosocial, aggressive and just the life of the party. Bully/victims can be socially withdrawn, isolated and do not interact much with playmates, or they may have a tendency to lean towards having aggressive playmates, therefore their behaviour becomes aggressive. Victims are targets because they have very little or no friends, and are looked upon as psychologically and socially vulnerable.
Is your child being labelled?
Is your child’s play aggressive?
Is your child the life of the party, but others are getting hurt during their playing time?
Is your child always complaining that they don’t have any friends?
Does your your child find it totally normal to wander off in a crowded room and play by themselves?
These are just some things to look for in your new to kindergarten student in your household.
University of Washington study of 4-5 year olds shows children’s understanding of writing as symbols is evident. Children, when shown a word by a human such as flower and then shown a word such as plant using an inanimate object like a puppet, understands that there is a difference in those two words. They also understand that words are very different from drawings.
Studies at Denver University show that children ages 3- 6 who are not yet reading but should have grasped phonemic awareness, when tested for speech sound disability(SSD) if present along with language impairment(LI) will have major learning problems.
Studies done by the University of Denver shows that children ages 3 to 6 years with speech and sound disabilities(SSD) have persistent difficulties with phonological awareness such as letter knowledge (LTR). But these same kids do well on rapid sound naming (RSN). These studies show that quite often (SSD) presents itself with language impairment (LI) and that where the two coexists literacy proves difficult.